Generally you see only the spore-producing structures (or fruit bodies) of a fungus, the rest being well hidden. The best-known type of fruit body would be a mushroom, i.e. something fleshy, with a cap, usually atop a stem, and gills on the cap's underside. For more about fruit body types see: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/types-of-fungi.html. Many fungi are not identifiable from photos, but you can increase your chances of by showing fruit bodies from different angles. If there's a stem, show it. With a mushroom try to show the base of the stem to see if it has a cup-like surround (e.g. http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/images-captions/volvariella-speciosa-0309.html) or some other striking feature (e.g. http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/images-captions/amanita-xanthocephala-0015.html). If there are distinct upper and lower surfaces, show both. If you can't photograph the underside, make a note of what's there. Here (http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/images-captions/entoloma-sp-0248.html) many pinkish brown spores have fallen from the gills of the upper cap onto the top of the lower cap. You won't always see a spore colour out in the open, but it pays to look (and see also: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/spore-prints.html). If you see what look like immature and mature fruit bodies, show both, since some features are easier to see on immature specimens others on mature ones. Is there any bruising or bleeding if some part of the fruit body is touched or damaged? The white pore layer of Amauroderma rude (http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/images-captions/amauroderma-rude-0053.html) bruises red if you scrape a fingernail across it. These Lactarius gills (http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/images-captions/lactarius-sp-0003.html) produced white droplets when damaged by my fingernail.
More information: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/index.html. In particular, you'll find out more about various macroscopic features at: Below I note some things that are worth looking for (and see also: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/fungi/macroscopic.html).
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